|~ 2250 BC
||Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon described
the symptoms of hemorrhoids
Egyptian papyrus described the use of topical astringent
Egyptian medical record noted the remedies for hemorrhoids.
|460 – 375 BC
Treatises described the treatment of hemorrhoids
by cautery and excision. Also, first recorded use of
endoscopy (use of speculum to inspect the rectum by
Old Testament, Samuel 5:9 Philistines punished with
Old Testament, Samuel 5:12 People who moved the Ark
to Ekron were punished with “emerods”.
|25 BC – AD 50
Pile ligation described by Celsus.
|AD 41 - 68
||Roman physician Dioscorides described the use of Aloe
Vera for easing hemorrhoids.
|AD 130 – 200
Galen, physician of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius,
described treatment of hemorrhoids with ointment, laxatives,
and leeches. He also wrote about using a thread to tie
off piles, and cause them to shrivel up.
| 4th – 5th Century
Indian text Susruta Samhita described the use of
clamp and cautery.
|5th - 10th Century
El-Zahrawy, an Arab physician, described the use
of cautery irons. During this time, Byzantine physicians
used thread to ligate the base of the hemorrhoid, followed
by its amputation.
|1307 – 1370
||John of Ardene wrote a treatise on the treatment of
hemorrhoids and fistula, as well as the use of enemas.
||Bozzini ushered in the modern era of endoscopy by using
an aluminum tube to see the genitourinary tract.
||Frederick Salmon founded the St. Marks Hospital in London,
and provided modern treatments of fistula and hemorrhoids.
||Anal dilation was introduced as a treatment for hemorrhoids.
||E.T.C. Milligan and C. Naughton Morgan further developed
excision / ligation method at St. Marks Hospital –
now considered the gold standard in hemorrhoidectomy.
||Modification to the Milligan-Morgan procedure introduced
||A.G. Parks developed the closed method of hemorrhoidectomy.
||J. Barron developed an out-patient procedure of using
rubber band to tie up hemorrhoids.
||Cryotheraphy, infrared coagulation,
diathermy, and laser cauteries were developed.
||P.H. Lord developed anal dilation as a treatment for
hemorrhoids. W.H.F. Thompson hypothesized that hemorrhoid
develops from anal cushions, which are normal anatomical
||Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH) or stapled
hemorrhoidectomy introduced in Italy by A. Longo