Milestones in the History of Hemorrhoids

~ 2250 BC Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon described the symptoms of hemorrhoids
1700 BC

Egyptian papyrus described the use of topical astringent lotion.

1552 BC

Egyptian medical record noted the remedies for hemorrhoids.

460 – 375 BC

Hippocratic Treatises described the treatment of hemorrhoids by cautery and excision. Also, first recorded use of endoscopy (use of speculum to inspect the rectum by Hippocrates).

 

Old Testament, Samuel 5:9 Philistines punished with “emerods”.
Old Testament, Samuel 5:12 People who moved the Ark to Ekron were punished with “emerods”.

25 BC – AD 50

Pile ligation described by Celsus.

AD 41 - 68 Roman physician Dioscorides described the use of Aloe Vera for easing hemorrhoids.
AD 130 – 200

Galen, physician of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, described treatment of hemorrhoids with ointment, laxatives, and leeches. He also wrote about using a thread to tie off piles, and cause them to shrivel up.

4th – 5th Century

Indian text Susruta Samhita described the use of clamp and cautery.

5th - 10th Century

El-Zahrawy, an Arab physician, described the use of cautery irons. During this time, Byzantine physicians used thread to ligate the base of the hemorrhoid, followed by its amputation.

1307 – 1370 John of Ardene wrote a treatise on the treatment of hemorrhoids and fistula, as well as the use of enemas.
1806 Bozzini ushered in the modern era of endoscopy by using an aluminum tube to see the genitourinary tract.
1835 Frederick Salmon founded the St. Marks Hospital in London, and provided modern treatments of fistula and hemorrhoids.
1849 Anal dilation was introduced as a treatment for hemorrhoids.
1935 E.T.C. Milligan and C. Naughton Morgan further developed excision / ligation method at St. Marks Hospital – now considered the gold standard in hemorrhoidectomy.
1952 Modification to the Milligan-Morgan procedure introduced by Ferguson.
1955 A.G. Parks developed the closed method of hemorrhoidectomy.
1963 J. Barron developed an out-patient procedure of using rubber band to tie up hemorrhoids.
1970 Cryotheraphy, infrared coagulation, diathermy, and laser cauteries were developed.
1975 P.H. Lord developed anal dilation as a treatment for hemorrhoids. W.H.F. Thompson hypothesized that hemorrhoid develops from anal cushions, which are normal anatomical structures.
1997 Procedure for Prolapse and Hemorrhoids (PPH) or stapled hemorrhoidectomy introduced in Italy by A. Longo

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